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Subject Topic: L’histoire de la canne a sucre
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Posted: 2010 Jan 07 at 4:48pm Quote rapadou

Je reproduis une portion de ce que j'ai appris sur la canne a sucre. Ce lien vous permettra de lire tout l'article.

A Very Ancient Crop
There are four reasons for thinking that sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is of very ancient domestication. First, the cultivated canes are very different from their wild progenitor, particularly in their domestication characteristics of juiciness and sweetness. Second, sugarcane, like modern wheat and maize, cannot survive on its own in the wild. It is dependent on cultivation by people for its survival. Third, sugarcane has lost the natural ability to propagate itself by seed. Except on research stations, it can be propagated only vegetatively, by cuttings. Lastly, there is an astonishingly wide range of varieties of cane in the centre of origin, which is in the general area of Papua New Guinea.

It is thought that an accidental hybridization occurred in northern India between a sugarcane and a wild relative called Saccharum spontaneum. This produced a new species called Saccharum barberi with thinner, harder stems. These hybrid canes were better suited to the subtropics, and to high altitudes, where the original, or noble, canes do poorly. Although they produce less sugar, they are more hardy, and more resistant to pests and diseases, than the noble canes. It was one of these hybrid canes that was taken to China in ancient times and, later, another was taken to Persia (modern Iran) and, from there, to Europe...

The Portuguese took sugarcane to Madeira, the Canary Islands, the Azores, and to West Africa. On his second voyage, in 1493, Columbus took sugarcane to Hispaniola (now the Dominican Republic and Haiti) where, however, both the cane and the Spanish colonizers that he left behind, were exterminated by native Caribs. West Indian sugar was first produced in Hispaniola in 1506 and, by 1550, it had been taken to most of the tropical New World...

Re-Encounter Parasites
In the course of this transfer of sugarcane from India, across Eurasia, Africa, and the Atlantic, to the New World, two quite typical things happened. The first was that virtually all the pests and diseases of sugarcane were left behind. The sugarcane industry of the New World then had an enormous commercial advantage over the Old World because, being parasite-free, it was much more productive.

The second typical happening was an extreme narrowing of the genetic base. In the centre of origin of sugarcane, there is a bewildering variety of different sugarcane clones. But, it seems, only one clone was taken to the New World. It still exists and, in India, is called "Puri". It is also known as "Yellow Egyptian" and, in Spain, it is called "Algarobena". In the New World, it is called "Creole", or "Cana Criolla", which is Spanish for "native cane". The extraordinary thing about "Creole" was that it was the only clone of sugarcane present in the New World for more than 250 years.

"Creole" is a variety of Saccharum barberi, and it is a very tough cane, which can be grown almost anywhere in the tropics and subtropics. In this sense, the New World was fortunate in its very narrow base of genetic material of sugarcane because, largely by chance, it received some of the best genetic material available, and it received it free of parasites.

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, a noble cane (i.e., pure Saccharum officinarum) was taken from the Far East to the New World, and it was found to have a higher yield of sugar than the old Creole cane. This new cane is believed to have been collected by the French admiral Bougainville, after whom one of the Melanesian group of Pacific islands, and the ornamental plant Bougainvillea, are named. He collected this new cane when he circumnavigated the world in 1766-68.

Bougainville took this cane to the French island of Bourbon (now called Réunion), in the Indian Ocean, and the cane became known as "Bourbon" when it was taken to Martinique, Guadeloupe, and Haiti. The original name of this cane was "Otaheite" and Captain Bligh, famous because of the mutiny on his ship, the "Bounty", also carried it to the West Indies in 1793...

Sugarcane Breeding
In 1888, a singular discovery was made simultaneously in Barbados and in Java. The British scientists Harrison and Bovell, in Barbados, and the Dutch scientist Soltwedel, in Java, discovered that it was possible, after all, to grow sugarcane from true seeds. This meant that sugarcane breeding became a practical possibility for the first time. A wave of cane breeding followed, and this had such a dramatic effect on cane production that it has even been suggested that this was the first "green revolution".

Cane breeding stations were set up in all the major cane growing countries. A convention developed in which a new cane variety was named with the initials of its breeding station followed by figures. Thus, all "Co" varieties come from Coimbatore in India, all "B" varieties from Barbados, all "H" varieties from Hawaii, and all "POJ" from the Dutch Proefstation Oost Java. Without the slightest doubt, the most famous new cane variety of all was POJ.2878. This variety was so successful that it was eventually grown in just about every cane producing country of the world, and it became an ancestor of every modern cane variety.

In spite of the magnificent example of sugar beet breeding, every one of the new sugarcane breeding stations adopted the Mendelian breeding approach. It turns out that there is not a single Mendelian character in sugarcane that is of any agricultural significance, and the biometrical, or quantitative, breeding approach would have been more suitable.

The pedigree breeders working with sugarcane believed very firmly in the importance of pedigrees. They were convinced that the only way to obtain new cultivars was to cross a high quality, high yielding "father" with a high quality, high yielding "mother". They even spoke of good and bad "blood" in sugarcane, and they believed it was imperative to know the pedigree of a cane for as many generations back as possible. Their research records resembled the stud books and pedigrees of race-horse breeders.

The chief characteristic of this procedure in plant breeding is that the breeder keeps looking backwards, to the parents, grand parents, great grand parents, and so on. This is the precise opposite of natural evolution. In the process of evolution, the past is quite literally dead and gone forever. Evolution looks forwards, not backwards. It is the fittest of the present generation that are going to have the most offspring in the next generation. The population breeding of the biometricians imitates natural evolution in that it looks forwards to the progenies, not backwards to the parents. Population breeders are not interested in pedigrees.

However, plant breeding is a continuing process and it is not easy to switch methods in the middle of that process. Once all cane breeding stations had adopted pedigree breeding methods, they stayed that way to this day. This is not to say that pedigree breeding is useless in sugarcane. It has produced some outstanding results. But population breeding can be expected to produce even better results, and more of them, in a shorter time.

The one exception to this rule of pedigree breeding in sugarcane is in Hawaii, where the cane breeders decided to launch an entirely new breeding program, using a population breeding methodology that they called the "melting pot" technique. They took pollen from about twenty good male parents, and used it to randomly pollinate millions of flowers of some twenty good female parents. They produced enough true seed to grow three million seedlings. These were screened by eye and reduced to about 600,000 selections that had the purely visual appearances of sugarcane. These selections were screened for sucrose content, and only those with very high sucrose contents were kept for further growth and screening. With each screening, there was a drastic reduction in the number of survivors, and a corresponding increase in the complexity of the screening tests became feasible.

The best selections of one screening generation became new cultivars. They also became the parents of the next screening generation, with another three million seedlings. This approach, of course, is recurrent mass selection, and it is the basic method of population breeding. It emphasizes the transgressive segregation of continuously variable characters that are polygenically inherited, such as sucrose content, total yield of cane at the time of harvest, horizontal resistance to pests and diseases, and so on.

As a result of some decades of this kind of breeding, Hawaii now has a wealth of outstanding cane cultivars which, however, are not often useful in other parts of the world because of differing environments, and differing patterns of pests and diseases.

Apart from protecting the cut surfaces of cane "setts", or pieces of stem, used for planting a new crop, Hawaiian cane farmers do not use insecticides or fungicides, and they have no important pest or disease problems. They also have the highest sugar yields in the world, with double the yield of any other country. No doubt, these high yields are due, at least in part, to the magnificent climate of these beautiful islands. But the best climate in the world will not produce high yields unless there is magnificent plant breeding as well.

Because sugarcane is derived from a continuous pathosystem (Chapter 6), all of its resistance to pests and diseases is horizontal resistance. The vertical resistances, that have caused so much trouble in crops derived from discontinuous wild pathosystems, such as potatoes, tomatoes, wheat, rice, peas, and beans, do not occur in sugarcane.

The durability of resistance in sugarcane is well established. For example, in the early part of the present century, a new encounter virus disease, called mosaic, appeared in the sugarcane of South Africa. All the existing varieties were highly susceptible, except one called "Uba", which was of such poor quality that it was described as being more like a bamboo than a sugarcane. The South African sugar industry faced ruin. It was eventually saved by POJ.2878, and varieties bred from it, which are resistant to mosaic. This disease has never again been serious in that area.

A similar story can be told of every cane producing area when the mosaic virus first appeared. There have been occasional subsequent outbreaks of mosaic virus, but only because the disease was controlled so totally by the use of resistant varieties, that breeders sometimes forgot to test new varieties for resistance to it, and they occasionally, and inadvertently, released a susceptible variety to farmers. This error has often been wrongly interpreted as a breakdown of vertical resistance, resulting from the appearance of a new, matching strain of the parasite.

In 1936, in his presidential address to the American Phytopathological Society, G. H. Coons spoke about controlling plant diseases by breeding crops for disease resistance. In those days, it was considered essential to first find a source of resistance, to use single gene resistances, and gene-transfer breeding methods, leading, as we now know, to vertical resistance which is usually temporary in its effects. In those days also, scientists working in crops such as wheat, potatoes and beans, were already beginning to think that all disease resistance was bound to fail sooner or later, because of new strains of the parasite. Coons believed otherwise. In his presidential address, he described how the historic sugarcane industry of Louisiana was ruined during the years 1923-1927 due to three recently introduced diseases. These diseases were mosaic, red rot, and root rot, to which all the old cane varieties were highly susceptible.

When the old varieties were replaced with new, resistant ones, these diseases virtually disappeared, and the state average yield of sugar increased by fifty percent. Coons believed that this resistance was durable. And he was right. It has now endured for some sixty years, and no one seriously suggests that the resistance is going to break down to new strains of these parasites. Perhaps the pedigree breeders of wheat, rice, potatoes, peas, and beans, should take a more careful look at sugarcane. Perhaps all the vertical resistance breeders of the world should visit Hawaii, to see how the sugarcane breeders of that island did it.

It is safe to assume that all resistance to sugarcane pests and diseases is horizontal resistance. In theory, this means that a sugarcane cultivar should last forever. It should never have to be replaced because of a failed resistance. In practice, however, there are two situations in which the horizontal resistance of a cane cultivar can apparently fail, or can become inadequate.

As already mentioned, a new cane cultivar may not be tested carefully enough before being released to farmers. It might be very susceptible to, say, mosaic virus, but this susceptibility has not become apparent because of faulty or inadequate testing. Because all the cane of the area is resistant, this virus is rare. It is only later, when the new cultivar is established as a crop, that there is a flare-up of the disease, and the susceptibility of the new cultivar becomes obvious. It is then very easy, and very tempting, for the crop scientists to blame nature, and to claim that the resistance was vertical, and had broken down, rather than to admit to their own carelessness. As we have seen (Chapter 13) this apparent loss of resistance is called a false erosion of horizontal resistance.

The second apparent failure of resistance occurs when a crop vulnerability is manifested, as also happened repeatedly, with mosaic virus. In the 1970s, two additional re-encounter sugarcane diseases finally reached the Caribbean, nearly five hundred years after the crop itself had been introduced there. The first of these diseases was "smut" caused by a microscopic fungus called Ustilago scitaminea. This is a spectacular disease in which the entire shoot of the cane is transformed into a smut "whip", up to six feet long and covered in black microscopic spores which are like a very fine soot. It has been estimated that one smut whip may produce as many as one hundred trillion spores. This is r-strategy reproduction at its most extreme.

The second disease was sugarcane rust, Puccinia erianthi, which is a close relative of the rusts that have caused so much trouble on wheat (Chapter 19)and maize (Chapter 20). It produces rust red pustules on the leaves and, in a susceptible cultivar, the plant is killed because of the loss of leaf.

Throughout the Caribbean, there were sugarcane cultivars that were susceptible to one or the other of these re-encounter diseases. They were susceptible only because they had been bred and selected in the absence of the diseases. These susceptible cultivars had to be replaced with resistant ones, and then the problem was not only solved, it was permanently solved.

However, the susceptibility was occasionally a very serious one, at least for a time. Cuba, for example, is the second largest sugarcane producer in the world (after Brazil), with an annual production of up to eleven million tons of extracted sugar. When rust appeared in this island, one third of the entire cane crop was planted to a rust-susceptible cultivar and, until it could be replaced several years later, Cuba suffered crippling losses in production.

At about this time, the sugarcane scientists in Barbados were anticipating the arrival of both smut and rust, because these diseases were already present in mainland South America. Barbados has its own cane breeding station, and it has a wealth of cultivars to choose from. The Barbados scientists decided to test as many of them as possible in South America, so that they would know in advance which cultivars were susceptible. The idea was to remove any susceptible cultivars from cultivation, as part of the routine replanting process, and to do this before the diseases appeared in the island. This is quite the best way of solving problems of crop vulnerability.

Barbados sent 1,600 cane cultivars to Guyana for testing. Each cultivar had to be tested twice because there were two diseases. Guyana is a very small, and a very poor, country. It has few scientists, and those it does have are over-worked. The task that these scientists undertook was a heavy one, but they knew that their results would be of immense benefit, both to Barbados, and to the whole of the Caribbean. This was a magnificent example of international goodwill, and of the assistance that non-industrial countries can give to each other.

The results were gratifying. When smut and rust finally arrived in Barbados, all the susceptible canes had been replaced, and these diseases caused no damage whatever...

Document(s) 26 of 33
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Posted: 2010 Jan 07 at 8:44pm Quote Againpapi

Thanks to the Portuguese! They are calling the "Gardeners" of the world for spreading many plants, crops and trees throughout the world, from India to the New World and vice versa for instances.


Quo vadis Ayiti
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Posted: 2010 Jan 09 at 6:14am Quote rapadou

Posted: 04 Jan 2010 at 3:23am    

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J'ai beaucoup cherche sans trouver les differents types de canne-a-sucre. Je veux quand-meme reproduire pour les lecteurs interesses un extrait qui fournit d'autes informations en attendant que je revienne avec les varietes ou noms de canne-a-sucre. A moins que quelqu'un d'autre veuille me devancer et nous en informer.

Colloque National sur la problématique de MPME du secteur agro-industriel
Karibe Convention Center, Pétion-Ville Haïti, 11 et 12 mai 2007 Page 18
Traduction du texte présenté en créole par Mme. Rebecca Jean-Pierre, membre de la Coopérative de Jeunes pour la commercialisation des produits de la Canne à sucre (COJAS) de Saint-Michel de l’Attalaye. La production de canne à sucre La canne à sucre est cultivée dans tous les départements du pays principalement en monoculture dans la Plaine du Nord, la Plaine du Cul de Sac, la Plaine de Léogâne et la Plaine des Cayes et le Plateau Central. La canne est aussi cultivée en association avec d’autres cultures dans différentes zones du pays et dans des zones de montagnes semi-humides. Entre 1975 et 1995, la superficie plantée avait baissé de 85,000 hectares à 62,000 hectares de canne. De 1997 à 2005 le nombre d’hectares plantés en canne passe de 62,000 à 44,500 hectares. Tout comme la superficie plantée, le rendement de la canne à l’hectare a aussi diminué pour passer de 37 à 50 tonnes métriques ((TM)) par hectare. De 1996 à 2005, la production nationale de canne à sucre a baissé de 1, 750, 000 TM à 1, 225, 000 TM par an. La Transformation de la canne La canne-à-sucre est transformée depuis l’époque coloniale, au lendemain de l’indépendance d’Haïti, en 1804, la grande et fructueuse industrie coloniale est devenue propriété de la nouvelle classe d’entrepreneurs. La canne est transformée en 5 produits différents consommés en Haïti et une partie de ces produits est exportée vers d’autres pays de la région. Les produits de la canne à sucre sont :
 Le Sucre avec une production en 2005 de l’Usine sucrière de Darbonne de 2607 TM représentant 2% du sucre consommé par le marché national.
 Le Clairin et l’Alcool, utilisant 68 % de la canne à sucre nationale pour produire 11, 000,000 gallons chaque année.
 Le Rapadou dont la production annuelle est de 14,280 TM de rapadou utilise 17 % de la canne produite.
 Le Sirop de consommation est produit pour un total de 600, 000 gallons par année et 3 % de la production de canne sont utilisées.
 Le Rhum produit par les distilleries est de 1, 250, 000 gallons l’an en utilisant 3 % de la production de canne.
La Canne à sucre est aussi consommée directement par la population, elle est dénommée canne de bouche. La quantité de canne de bouche consommée est évaluée à 50 000 TM par année soit environ 3 % de la production. Cette consommation est estimée pour un montant de 12, 500, 000 gourdes l’an. Les variétés de canne consommées sont pour la plupart différentes de celles transformées dans les ateliers de transformation. À la libéralisation du marché, de1986 à 1996, toutes les usines sucrières du pays ont fermé leurs portes. Ainsi, l’Usine Sucrière de Darbonne a cessé de fonctionner en 1986; l’usine sucrière du Nord est fermée en 1991, la HASCO a fermé en 1992 et la Centrale Dessalines des Cayes en 1996. L’Usine Sucrière de Darbonne a ouvert à nouveau ses portes en 2000 pour produire actuellement environ 2 % du sucre consommé localement.
Colloque National sur la problématique de MPME du secteur agro-industriel
Karibe Convention Center, Pétion-Ville Haïti, 11 et 12 mai 2007 Page 19
Les exportations des produits de la canne à sucre Haïti exporte une petite quantité de sa production de canne transformée, environ 200 gallons de clairin type Nazon sont exportés vers les Antilles, les Etats- Unis et le Canada. Les Etats-Unis et l’île Caicos Sud reçoivent 1000 kilos de sirop de consommation par an. La distillerie Rhum Barbancourt exporte environ 200,000 litres de rhum par an aux Etats-Unis, au Canada, en Italie et en Equateur. Ce rhum est un concurrent important des autres rhums internationaux, Plus de 5 % du Rapadou: produit est expédié vers la République Dominicaine. Haïti a exporté annuellement vers les Etats Unis, Bahamas et les Iles Turques pour plus de 5,000 $US de Canne de bouche Les ateliers de transformation de canne à sucre en 2005 Haïti compte 5,582 micros, petites et moyennes entreprises actives dans la transformation de la canne à sucre en plus de l’Usine sucrière de Darbonne, composées de :
 438 distilleries de clairin traditionnel ;
 74 distilleries de clairin de type Nazon (à vapeur) ;
 610 ateliers de fabrication de sirop avec moteur ;
 2,360 ateliers de fabrication de sirop à traction animale ;
 120 ateliers de fabrication de rapadou avec moteur ;
 1980 ateliers de fabrication de rapadou à traction animale dont 1360 sont à moulin en bois.
La situation des ateliers de transformation de la canne Les distilleries de clairin
 Les distilleries de clairin sont au nombre de 512 unités (Ouest 154 unités, Grande Anse 104, Nord 89, Plateau Central 71, Artibonite 65, Sud 29) avec une capacité totale de production de 20 millions de gallons de clairin par an. Seulement 75.5 % de la capacité installée de ces unités sont utilisées à cause surtout du mauvais fonctionnement des guildives de type Nazon et de la faible capacité des alambics des guildives traditionnelles ;
 65 % de ces ateliers sont directement gérés par leurs propriétaires dont la moyenne d’âge est de 50 ans et ces propriétaires-gestionnaires accusent une certaine faiblesse dans la capacité de gestion de ces entreprises.
 Les distilleries de clairin fournissent 123,000 emplois dont 5,000 directement dans les ateliers, 18,000 emplois en amont et 100,000 en aval de la transformation.
Les ateliers de sirop
 Il existe 3,000 ateliers de fabrication de sirop de canne pour la préparation de sirop de consommation, de clairin et de rapadou. Parmi ces ateliers, 610 disposent de moulins à moteur, 2,050 de moulins en bois et à traction animale et les autres, soit 340 unités de moulins en acier à traction animale pour l’extraction du jus de canne ;
 Les ateliers de production de sirop ont une capacité installée de production 30 millions de gallons de sirop par année. Cette capacité installée n’est exploitée qu’à 50 % à cause principalement du faible débit des moulins des ateliers à traction animale. De plus, les types de
Colloque National sur la problématique de MPME du secteur agro-industriel
Karibe Convention Center, Pétion-Ville Haïti, 11 et 12 mai 2007 Page 20
foyers et la qualité des chaudières des unités à traction animale exigent un temps long de chauffe du jus, soit 7 heures ou plus, et les chaudières des ateliers à moteur sont de faible capacité.
 Les ateliers de production de sirop génèrent directement 25,000 emplois.
Les ateliers de rapadou
 Les ateliers spécialisés dans la production de rapadou se retrouvent principalement dans les communes du Plateau Central et à Saint Michel de l’Attalaye. Les 2,100 unités ont une capacité de production équivalente à 38,000 TM de rapadou et n’utilisent que 54 % de cette capacité toujours à cause du type de foyers et de la qualité des chaudières des unités ;
 Le rapadou est préparé dans de mauvaises conditions d’hygiène et sa présentation sur le marché n’attire qu’une catégorie de consommateurs ;
 Les 2,100 unités de préparation du rapadou emploient 28,000 personnes.
Atouts des ateliers de transformation de la canne
 La bagasse comme source d’énergie de chauffage des ateliers.
La bagasse de canne constitue la principale source d’énergie dans les 74 unités de types Nazon. Ces unités produisent environ 84% du clairin et de l’alcool produits au niveau national.
 La disponibilité de la canne.
En règle générale les entreprises de transformation construisent leur calendrier de travail suivant des périodes précisent. Elles cessent leur fonctionnent ou ralentissent leur production au cours de la période pluvieuse quand le taux de sucre est plus faible. Le prix de la canne accuse de fortes variations suivant les régions. Notons que celui des produits dérivés de la canne a tendance à s’uniformiser au niveau national.
 L’accès aux matériels et équipements.
La plupart des équipements et matériels utilisés dans les ateliers est fabriqué ou réparé par des artisans haïtiens localisés en grande partie à Léogâne.
 L’apport des femmes.
Les femmes forment un véritable réseau de transfert du rapadou, du sirop de consommation des zones de production vers les zones de consommation et du débit en détail du clairin. Contraintes des ateliers de transformation de la canne
 Source d’énergie de chauffage.
Les unités traditionnelles de fabrication de sirop, de clairin et de rapadou utilisent le bois pour chauffer le jus de canne. La consommation de bois de ces ateliers est estimée à 320.000 m3 de bois par an soit plus de 53,300 arbres abattus par année pour alimenter les guildives et distilleries.
 L’offre de main-d’oeuvre
L’une des contraintes principales dans le fonctionnement des ateliers demeure l’offre de main-d’oeuvre pour la coupe de la canne.
Colloque National sur la problématique de MPME du secteur agro-industriel
Karibe Convention Center, Pétion-Ville Haïti, 11 et 12 mai 2007 Page 21
Situation du marché des produits de la canne
 Le clairin, le sirop de canne et le rapadou résistent bien aux produits concurrents importés; le sirop produit n’accuse jamais de stocks se sirop, il est réservée et souvent prépayée;
 Les prix des produits de la canne à sucre augmentent annuellement de 20 à 22 % ;
 La consommation effective et courante des produits de la canne augmente à un taux de 4 % l’an;
 Les marges commerciales sont relativement élevées ; elles varient de 20 à 35 %.
 Le marché des produits de la canne peut probablement prendre son expansion à travers la production d’un sirop de table de couleur claire propre et bien emballé à l’instar du sirop préparé par les petites soeurs de Sainte Thérèse; par la promotion du sirop de canne actuel; la production et la promotion d’un rapadou mieux conditionné, moins humide et plus hygiénique. L’expansion du marché peut aussi se faire par le développement du marché de clairin d’élite de petit format sur le modèle de Clairin « Lakay ». De plus la production du jus de canne dans un emballage approprié comme jus de boisson constitue un potentiel à explorer. Le gaz carbonique (CO2) produit lors de la fermentation de la canne peut-être collecté et comprimé de manière rentable dans les guildives importantes.
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Posted: 2010 Jan 09 at 12:48pm Quote elise

C'est dommage que les démons de toutes légions persistent à terroriser le pays, empêchant les citoyens affluents et cométents d'investir sur grande échelle et à long terme dans la production agricole. 

Je ne suis sans doute pas la seule à désirer trouver kleren et rapadou dans les marchés communautaires et boutiques de produits botaniques dans mon canton. Pour la noël j'ai eu la chance de trouver la seule bouteille de Barbancourt (réserve spéciale/8 ans) en boîte-cadeau, pour un ami juif qui ne sait pas trop d'Haiti.

Les produceurs de ces produits, surtout du Barbancourt, devraient vraiment décider de percer plus largement le marché international à travers les médias publiques, e.g. panneaux d'affichage (billboards) dans les zones commerciales, magazines professionnels, tableaux virtuels, etc. 

Ils ont survécu nos régimes oppressifs et destructeurs depuis leur fondation; ils survivront lavalas-l'espwa-l'inite !

M ta byen kontan jwenn kek boutey klerin pou mete nan liker frez ke m renmen fè chak ane.

élise ----
"La haine excite les querelles, mais l'amour couvre toutes les fautes.
L'ami aime en tout temps, et dans le malheur il se montre un frère."
Proverbes 10:12 + 17:17 @
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